Rudbeckia laciniata, one of our large native golden coneflowers. During mid- to late-summer, swarms of bees and butterflies come to the abundant flowers of this plant - see the picture below for an example.
study in Bronx community gardens showed that large amounts of flowers and sunlight were the main factors affecting butterfly diversity, while bees needed these plus a large garden area (not just flowers), probably for nesting.
Success: sun, flowers (lots!), space.
This weekend our first shipment of PG native plants is being made available to project members. Some of these we bought, but many have been donated from members' gardens (thanks to VK for Rudbeckia triloba and to CK for 15 different species!). If you're the lucky recipient of some of these, plant them as soon as possible, leaving 1.5 to 2 feet around the taller plants and about a foot between the smaller ones. The cool, damp weather we're getting will help them establish, but water during the first month if they start to dry out.
The PG at the top of this post has 15 species now and will end up with about 20-25 this year. Why so many? Mostly, to achieve as long a season of bloom as possible! Also, even a simple but largish garden such as this one has areas with more shade and dryness and more open spots. We're choosing plants not just for flowers but also to attract butterflies to lay their eggs. For instance, our native Common Blue Violet (Viola sororia) provides nectar in spring and leaf food for caterpillars of a number of butterflies including the fritillaries. Native Canadians use various parts of this violet medicinally, and like many violas the flowers are edible and ornamental in salads or omelettes. We planted a lovely selected form called "Freckles" I grew from seed many years ago. I photographed it in our garden yesterday.
Last but not least, ambitious Pollinator Gardeners with some space should think about native trees, which provide much-needed spring flowers. The Redbud (Cercis canadensis) is a striking small tree which tolerates partial shade and grows from Southern Ontario to the US south. Here it is blooming in our front yard yesterday. This 18-year old specimen started under a maple tree and reached one story. When the city took the old maple down, the extra sun allowed it to reach the second story, quite unusual for this species. And yes, there were native pollinators on it! I took my pictures in early morning before it warmed up so only saw bumblebees and a few small bees, probably Andrena. The picture could be clearer, but it's from 20 feet away at maximum zoom on a moving target. Nonetheless you can see what can be found in a Toronto garden on May 6.
Next post I'll feature some of our other larger gardens and the plants going into them.